Activites for Complementary Events and Probability Venn Diagrams

Hey all

Thought I would post my Maths Middle Years assignment. I did complementary events and Venn Diagrams that were focused on Year 8s. There are student misconceptions for both activities. Both activities have step-by-step instructions for the teachers and cover all levels of Blooms Taxonomy. Hope it helps with the students learning.

Click here to obtain activties

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An easy activity to show how plate tectonics interact

Plate tectonics allow the top layer of the earth (the lithosphere) to move, resulting the land formations and current oceans that we have today. There are numerous ways in which you could display how plate tectonics interact. However, I think the way represented in the picture is one of the easiest.  I have provided a breif explanation of each interaction below (the description was take from wikipedia as I couldn’t be bothered typing it out myself :D)

  1. Transform boundaries (Conservative) occur where plates slide or, perhaps more accurately, grind past each other along transform faults. The relative motion of the two plates is either sinistral (left side toward the observer) or dextral (right side toward the observer). The San Andreas Fault in California is an example of a transform boundary exhibiting dextral motion (
  2. Divergent boundaries (Constructive) occur where two plates slide apart from each other. Mid-ocean ridges (e.g., Mid-Atlantic Ridge) and active zones of rifting (such as Africa’s East African Rift) are both examples of divergent boundaries (
  3. Convergent boundaries (Destructive) (or active margins) occur where two plates slide towards each other commonly forming either a subduction zone (if one plate moves underneath the other) or a continental collision (if the two plates contain continental crust). Deep marine trenches are typically associated with subduction zones, and the basins that develop along the active boundary are often called “foreland basins”. The subducting slab contains many hydrous minerals, which release their water on heating; this water then causes the mantle to melt, producing volcanism. Examples of this are the Andes mountain range in South America and the Japanese island arc. (

4. Sliding – Plates grinding past each other in opposite directions create faults called transform faults. Powerful earthquakes often strike along these boundaries. The San Andreas Fault is a transform plate boundary that separates the North American Plate from the Pacific Plate. This fault system is largely responsible for the devastating earthquakes in Los Angeles and San Francisco (

Sources of Reference

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (2005) Accessed 23rd April 2013.

Numerous Authors (2013). Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Accessed 23rd April 2013.

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What happens to water in space?

The amazing thing about water (and when you think about it any substance) is the way it ‘behaves’ under different scenarios. For example, it can be a solid, liquid or gas – dependent in how much energy has effected the water.

But what would happen to water in space? We know that objects are not under the same gravitational force produced by the Earth as objects get further away from the Earth. So, would be water ‘float’ around in the vacuum of space or would it fall back Earth? The answer to that question is dependent on the scenario.

The following video doesn’t exactly answer those question – but it does give us an understanding of waters awesome properties and the way it behaves in space.


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NASA discovers three Earth-like planets; could host life ~ Digital Journal

New earth like planets you say. Imagine if they contain life – and we are looking at them and they are looking at us. Freaky, huh?

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Extreme weather set to get worse

2011 – 220 scientists – experts in the field of global climate – conclude that extreme weather is increasing – heatwaves to become more damaging – intense rainfall to become…well….more intense.

Not good news for Australia – especially considering that the ‘Black Saturday’ bushfires were estimated to cost $4.4 billion and the 2011/2012 Queensland floods were estimated to cost $5 billion. And we can’t forget about all the lives that were lost because of these events.

So brace yourself Australia. The next century appears to be a royal pain in our backsides –  and we really only have ourselves to blame.

Source of information:

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A map of the stars

We all know that there are billions of stars in the universe. In fact, there are approximately 200-400 billion stars within our won galaxy. But have you ever wondered about the stars within our local star group? Or what they look like?

Up to 400 billion stars are present within the Milky Way Galaxy

Up to 400 billion stars are present within the Milky Way Galaxy

The nearest star to our sun is approximately 4.7 light years away. Not very far you say? I could get there and back before the weekend finishes?

Consider this. Voyager 1, released in 1977, is the furthest man-made object away from our sun. It has travelled 17 light hours. This means it has only travelled 17 light hours in 36 years. Hence,  Voyager 1 travelled , on average, 0.472 light hours per year over the past 36 years. Therefore, it would take Voyager 1  1482192 years to reach our nearest star. I don’t think I will be around for that.

The following link will provide more detail on the local star group while providing you with an interactive ‘tour’ and an artist impression of what the stars look like.

AS always, I hope you enjoy.

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Star profile: Betelgeuse

A nice little blog on the comparison of Betelgeuse and our own sun (the star).


Betelgeuse (pronounced ‘betel-jers’) is a red supergiant star around 640 light years away in the constellation of Orion. It is nearly 1000 times larger than the Sun and 20 times more massive; it’s diameter alone would be enough to engulf Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars and would reach the orbit of Jupiter.

The star is in the final stages of its lifecycle and is expected to go supernova any time between now and the next million years. Upon doing so, Betelgeuse–or at the very least the light from the explosion–will outshine the full Moon and be clearly visible in broad daylight.  Due to the distance involved it is quite possible that Betelguese has already exploded, but we wouldn’t know about it until the light had completed its 640 year journey to Earth!

Doomsayers in 2012 claimed the ensuing gamma-ray burst from the supernova could result in the end of the world, but…

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